Conf42 Golang 2023 - Online

Test Driven Development & Golang

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Test Driven Development is a process to convert software requirements into test cases first. In this session, I’ll be sharing some ways to write test cases in Golang along with some best practices, that you can use within your company’s project or even if you’re just started to learn TDD in Golang.


  • In this session we are going to learn about test driven development using Golang. We will be looking some best practices of it and how we can start working on TDD on our company's project. After that we will be uploading our talk.
  • TDD is a software development process that involves repeatedly writing test cases first and then write actual code. By writing tests first, developers can catch errors early in the development process. Best driven development approach also helps engineer to write better code and reduce time on debugging.
  • Go testing package is a built in by default testing package that comes with go environment. It is basically a companys line tool that automates the process of running tests. Comes along with testing coverage tool as well. Can actually generate and visualize the coverage of your actual test cases.
  • The main purpose of this HTTPs basically we basically use the new recorder. The new recorder is basically like we get all the properties and methods which comes in response writer when we create some API HTTP API. So that's how you can actually write HTTP and test cases.
  • Table driven testing allows you to test your features or function with multiple inputs and expected outputs. There are some testing frameworks already provided by Go community. The main thing to follow is whenever you are working with TDD.
  • All right guys, so thank you very much. You can follow me on Twitter at mkhan, GitHub, LinkedIn where I'm mostly active on. Let me know if you have any questions. And thank you.


This transcript was autogenerated. To make changes, submit a PR.
In this session we are going to learn about test driven development using Golang. We will be looking some best practices of it and how we can start working on TDD on our company's project. Or either we're just starting to practicing it, practices it out. All right, so who am I? I'm Mohammad Quanit. I'm working as product engineering manager manager at Timegram IO, which is basically a SaaS based startup, basically calculates or manage the time for freelancer agencies. Also, I also am AWS community builder as well, along with I do write technical content on dev two which you may probably have heard. And I also do some public speaking as well. And these are my hobbies that I provided, I mentioned. Okay, so let's see our agenda for today's talk. First we will be looking test driven development. What actually test driven development is, what should we do, how should we care about and what is basically the motivation for it. And then we are looking some ways to test in Golang, to write testing in Golang. There are some approaches that I've already mentioned in this list. Go testing package. We'll be discussing about HTTP server rest API testing. We'll be looking at table driven testing, which is basically an approach for writing test cases in Golang. We will be looking some open source testing framework that you can use, and at the end of our talk we will be looking some TDD best practices. And after that we will be uploading our talk. So TDD, what is TDD? You probably have heard of TDD as a most hyped term. So TDD is nothing but just a software development process that involves repeatedly writing test cases first and then write actual code. So basically what happens that developers, traditionally developers do whenever they write a software, whenever they write a feature in a software, they probably write some code first, and then after that they actually start implementing test cases. But there's a high chance that developers or engineers can miss some of the cases that actually if that feature contains. Right. So for that issue, for that problem, test driven development is an approach that introduced by some of the early engineers in early 90s that why you shouldn't write test cases before actual development. So this is what best driven development is. It actually forces the developers in terms of implementing implementers or users. So basically when developers are writing test cases before writing actual production code, they know that, okay, so this is a feature we need to cover this amount of cases. And then if all our cases are covered, then we can start writing our actual code. So by writing test cases first, we developers can catch errors early in the development process and ensure that our code is easy to test, maintainable and refactorable. So what does mean by that? Okay, so if developers are required to write a feature for their application, what they can do is they can first assess all the test cases that could cover the actual features. Then they can start writing the test cases. After writing test cases and after their production code, writing production code, they can catch errors early in the development process. If somehow things are breaking in production production code, what they can do is they can actually check in test cases like what they did miss or what they have done wrong or what could they have done wrong? Right, what could they have done wrong? So that's how they can ensure our test case are easy to maintain. And after that, when they maintain, it's easy to refactor as well. Best driven development approach also helps engineer to write better code and reduce time on debugging. As I said about if developers are able to catch errors early on development time on actual production code, they are able to reduce the time on debugging because they knew that they actually wrote best cases first and they knew that where the error could occur or where the issue could happen. So it eventually reduces time on debugging part. And this can lead to more predictable and reliable software as they are already reducing the time or reduce the time on debugging. And the last part is that TDD is not just part of merely testing mechanism. It requires a lot of practice, to be honest, to implement in real world project, because it's not just like that. You start writing test cases before, and then after you write production board, you need to be mentally prepared. That, okay, if I need to write this feature, what are the test cases actually covered? So it requires a lot of analysis and assessment of our feature that we are supposed to deliver and then we have to discuss with our leads that, okay, so what are the things that this feature can cover or should not cover? And then according to this, we need to write cases according to that. So it's basically a like mental model. If you go along with at first it will be overwhelming, but if you are doing practice with your side projects or any small scale projects, you will be good to go in TDD first because this is a mental approach for writing proper software. Okay, so TDD has some stages. The first stage is when we write a test case, we need to write a test case. Okay, so after writing the test cases, we need to check the best case. Okay, so if we have some provider, if we have some road and test cases. Let's say if we are testing some function that actually testing or some function that takes numbers and incrementing them, we need to verify that, okay, if we are providing this length of numbers, then it could result in this. Okay, then we will see in live code as well. After writing our test cases, we then need to write our production code so that we can actually run our test by our production code. After writing our production code, we can run, or we do run all our tests, and if things are good, we actually can our code or refactoring our code that if this is required, both refactoring required in test cases code or the production code. All right, so this is stages of TDD. Okay? So why should we even care about TDD? Okay, so first point is it shortens the programming feedback loop. Okay, so what does it mean by that? It reduces the feedback time. Let's say if there is something, if there's a requirement of a feature and you have already wrote a test suit test case of that feature, after writing the production code, all things are valid work. But suddenly there's a change required in that feature. You can easily go through your test cases code and then you can actually update it because you don't need to write the whole test case again for that feature. You just need to maybe tweaks in your test cases code. So it actually shortens the feedback loop of your basic requirement for your test cases. As I said about it also encourages engineers to write modular, testable and maintainable code. Modular in the sense like, if I have an XYZ feature and it consists of some, let's say, five steps, we can write five separate test cases for that specific feature, which we can wrote it in a test suite, and we can test it via separately. So we can test those five steps separately in a modular manner. It is also testable. And if we write our test cases in a modular form, it is also maintainable as well. It also sketches errors early in the development. It also reduces debugging time as well, because if you know what you are doing actually, and if there's some issue happens in your production code, you know where to look at your test cases, and then you can fix out your actual time. It also reduces the cost of change. Let's say if there's something new requirement in that specific XYZ feature, you can also change the test cases along with that feature, and then you can just probably add some age cases that that feature actually was supposed to cover. Right. It also boosts confidence with sense of continuous reliability and success. So then as a developer, when you are writing test cases, you know that, all right, you have done your part in terms of testing and you have covered all of your cases. So it helps you with the sense of reliability. Okay, so I already wrote this test case or those test cases. Now I'm good to go with this feature. If there's any issue occur, I know where I have to look at on our testboard. And if you don't write test cases, how do youre know that your code is doing the right thing? Right. Test cases should be mandatory for every company. In our company we are also doing some test driven development. We just started in our company implementing TDD in our project and so far is going good now because we know that whatever feature we are supposed to ship, it will supposed to work, it will work. And if there's any issue comes up, we know where we have to make some changes in our test cases. So these are some motivations that we should consider when implementing TDD because it helps you to focus on your path that, okay, so you are doing TDD for this purpose and it will pay off in long term of time. Okay, so let's see some of the packages in our Golang. So the first and the foremost testing package actually provided by go. So whenever you install a Golang environment in your computers, you actually get testing package along with it. So go testing package is a built in by default testing package that comes with go environment. It is basically a companys line tool that automates the process of running tests. Okay so whenever you write test cases in Golang, you wrote test cases, right? And then how? Then you have to run those test cases, you provide a command called go test and then it will actually run all the tests which you have written code of. Right. So we will see it in an example as well. So test functions with a specific. So whenever we write test cases in go, we need to provide with a specific signature that must started with test. Okay, so whenever we test go, let's say we are writing a test for our feature xyz. So the file name should be our xyz underscore test which takes a pointer and then we then create a function on it and then it takes a pointer testing t which is basically a struct that actually provides some of the methods and methods and properties that we can use to write or assert test cases in a web testing package comes along with testing coverage tool as well. That can actually helps you to generate coverage report which shows how much of your code is covered by best. So let's say if you have write 20 test cases in your project and you want to see the coverage of your test cases, maybe it could be 80% or 90%. So you can use a go coverage tool which can actually generate and visualize the coverage of your actual test cases. It also supports benchmarking as well, which is used to measure the performance of your code. So let's say if you are writing an HTTP server and if you want to benchmark the latency of the rest and server or client to database connection, you can actually benchmark that as well. Not just rest APIs, but in fact whatever youre are writing. So you get a point. And it also comes with some of these flags as well as youre know, Golang supports some flags. We can provide some of the flags to see the more detailed logs in youre test cases. We mostly use Vlag which is basically purpose flag which is to show the more logs in our test cases or the behavior of our test cases. How youre test case going or what is the behavior of our test cases are Golang best package as I said, return on a file ending with underscore test go and every best function start with test keyword which takes a testing parameter testing t pointer that's basically a strut. So let's hear on a live code. Okay, so as you can see here, we have file called main co and we have written two functions on it. One is hello world and other is sum. So we will see the test cases of both of these two functions. Let's see on our main underscore test go which is our test case file. Test cases file. So let's see for test hello world test cases. So as you can see, as I said before, that whatever function we have to write for run our test cases, the convert for boolean testing is the function should start with that keyword test. We have two array, one is God and one is bond. And if for some reason God and bond is not equal, our test case will be failed. Same as for test sum function. As you can see as well that we are providing a parameter testing t which is basically a struct that provides some common methods, interfaces and properties. If you see this test function. So basically test function, the sum function is taken a number array of numbers and then it actually run loop on it. Runs loop for loop on it and returns the sum of all the numbers provided in our arrays. And we have written our test case for test sum as well. The d run function provide is basically supposed to run our test case in a separate thread. So if I write another t run in our test sum function, it works in a separate thread. So for now, for the sake of this example, I will just run a single t dot run function which basically best our sum of numbers in an array. So the numbers of array we have provided here is 5.3 to one. That makes it basically the sum that 15 will be the sum of this function when the sum function returns and the run value contains 16. So somehow it should fail, right? So let's check the, let's see how we can run our test kit. And if I provide b flag, it's basically providing me enough information to see the steps on our test case. If I click on it. And you can see here that, you can see here my best string function has been passed test case function because this headover function is written exactly the same string as I provided what variable. But my test some number of arrays to test some function has been failed because we are getting the result in this function is 15 and I am asserting with the value of 16. So it actually failed because it is a t error function run which is basically a log app to print the logs that your actual test case had been failed. To see this on premise. So that's basically how the day you write test cases. HTTP testing testing can HTTP server in go involves some sending HTTP requests to the server and verifying the responses that it returns. So whenever we create an HTTP server in a form of best endpoint, what we need to check is that if our data is coming out in a proper manner, or the length of our data is coming correct from the server, or if we have to see, we have to check some status code. So there are some examples that we can test on HTTP server. So let's see on the code. Okay, so here you can see that we have a file called endpoints go, and I've already wrote two functions on it. One is get posts that is basically returning all the hundred posts that's coming from this API endpoint, this public API endpoint. And we have along with a header and some status code, okay, and we have another function called get single post which takes a parameter and then it will return a single post on the basis of an id. And if we see the main function which is HTTP example, which we are calling in our main go function, main function in go environment. So you can see here the endpoint HTTP example. So if we see this function implementation, we can see that we have provided a port. I'm using the mux new router to set up the routers, to set up the routes for my API. I have set it up two routes, one for posts, one for single post along with the id parameter. And I have started and I have did some logging to see the actual log for our server and I've already up and run the server. So if you can see this, I already started server on port 3001. So let's see the test cases of it. Okay, so I have created a function called test post endpoint, which is supposed to test the endpoint. Supposed to test the endpoint, as I said that it takes a testing parameter t testing t struct in a parameter. We are creating a new request which actually hit the request and post something. The new request basically runs with a context background and which helps us to generate a new request on the specific endpoint which is post in our case. And we are getting our get request. And if there is an error, we can see an error. So what actually we are doing here? So there's something called HTTP test, which is a package, comes with environment and we are using the new recorder function. So basically this function is an initialized response recorder. So it is the enhanced implementation of response writer. So if you have ever worked with best APIs in Go, if you have ever worked with best cases in go, so you have used response writers most every time, right? So this is something like, this is something on top of response writer, but it is basically a response recorder that helps us to record the response. We then create another variable called handler and we simply provide the handle function which is basically getting this get post. So get post basically the function that we have implemented for getting all the posts, right. So again we go to our best function. We are then serving our HTTP because we need to test our endpoint in such a way that it can actually run the endpoint and get the response from the actual API. And then we are Golang to look at the length of the response that we need to verify. Okay, so I then did all this stuff, then decoding and sharing stuff for converting data into struct. All right? And then we have created two variables, got expected length and want expected length. Okay, so this API that the post public API is supposed to return error object of 100 objects, right? So I want to verify that, okay, if my API is returning me the length of 100 objects in an array, and we are checking with God expected length, that what actually the length of the data is getting from the API endpoint, then simply we just did if condition and if somehow our length does not match, it will fail, right? So if I run the terminal here server and I run go run go best. So you can see that my best are passed because how it's passed because the length of the data which came from the API endpoint, the post API has 100 items and I want to check it with 100 as well if I want to see the failed version of my test case. So if I provide 10 one and I do this, if I run again, vote sv youre see it must fail because unexpected length of data got 100 want xo one because I want the length of data to be 101 and I am getting the data, the length of the data is 100. So that's how you can actually write HTTP and test cases. Another one like you can also check some status code as well if you want to see if this API, if this response of this API is getting 200, okay server, or if you are trying to check some other status as well, or if you are finding out that okay, if this API comes with some data that I am expecting with this specific field. So these are some of the examples that we can cover in HTTP. But for the sake of this session, I am just showing you this example for HTTP test. So the main purpose of this HTTPs basically we basically use the new recorder. So the new recorder is basically like we get all the properties and methods which comes in response writer when we create some API HTTP API. All right, so let's move on to our table driven testing. So table driven testing basically allows you to test your features or function with multiple inputs and expected outputs, right? So what basically means that if youre see this example, let me show you here, we only created got and want variable. If you remember our first test case, we only use got and want variable. But if we want to check multiple, but if we want to test our feature according to multiple use cases, then what we can do here is let me show you the example. So there's a simple sum function which I've created that is simply returning a plus b response. And if we go to the test function, so you can see here the best sum, and you can see here that I've created a simple struct, named cases and I've provided a description number and expected. So what basically does is that I can create as many as use cases as I want for testing my sum function. Let's say if you see the first two objects, basically. So here I am providing the description one plus two and number one and one plus one. Two and expected will be three okay, so if we add one and two, one plus two expected should be three. And if we provide three and four input, like num one from three and num two to four expected should be seven. So you can see that we have created a struct along with, and then we ran the loop on our struct cases by using range keyword. Now, as I said before, that t run is basically responsible for running our test case, responsible for running our best cases, right? So here we are providing t run, and then we provide our t description, which is basically the text for the text that we are supposed to see on terminal. Then we have provided a function that is getting testing t, which we already discussed. And in this loop I am getting the result of sum, and I'm providing the parameter num one. And on the loop side, in the loop we are getting num one and um, two. And for each of these cases, like for case number one and case number two, it will return the response, either our best case is passed or failed. So if I run my code, let me clear the screen, I go to CD and table. If I run go test. Okay, so as you can see that in youre verbus flag, youre can see that we have run a couple of test cases, one plus two and three plus four, and all of them are passed. Okay, so now you have the idea like table driven testing. What? Table driven testing is the table driven testing is basically an approach where we actually provide as many as use cases, as many as inputs to get different outputs. So let's say, let me add another one, another input, and let me do this. Ten plus 45, and I provide number one and number 210 or 45. But I'm expecting, let's say 70, which is not basically, which should be failed. Right? If I run this test case again, we can see that our test sum one plus two is passed. Test sum three plus four is actually passed. But ten plus 45 has actually failed because we actually wanted the number, because we actually wanted the expected 70. But we are getting ten plus 45, which is 55. So that's how you can provide as many as input as you want and get different outputs according to your use case. All right, so you got the idea of table driven testing. There are some testing frameworks already provided by Go community in which youre can see the Gomega, which is basically a matcher assertion library. So if you have some advanced level of assertion and you want to test some complex use cases that require some matching features, then you can go for Gomega library. Another was in group, another was in Pocheck. Basically it's a feature rich testing library which includes that in a more advanced and complex features testify toolkit for mocks and assertions. It is also similar as Bomega, but it also provides you some mocking feature to provide some fake data or fake responses, I should say. So. Go mock is another dedicated framework that you can use to test your actual code base. And there's another one called Jinko which is basically a BDD testing framework. BDD stands for behavior driven development. So it's like something where we have to check specific specs. So basically it means like we can see the behavior of our code in a form of specific specs. So you see here are testing frameworks that is already introduced by both community, okay, so the main thing to follow is whenever you are working with TDD, you need to follow some best practices, which you should basically. So the first and foremost, which I already discussed as well in the start of my session, that always write test case before the actual code. Because whenever you write test cases, you know what you are actually supposed to do in your actual code, right? Write a small and focused test. Okay, so if you have a feature that contains some, that contains some different sort of performed different sorts of algorithm, you can write a small and focus test of that feature, like test for algorithm one, best for test for algorithm two, and you can set it up in a specific suite. So make sure to write small and focus best so that it can be easily manageable and maintainable. Use go test command to test case along with v flag for verbus logs as I show you in the terminal. As I show you in live code that always use go test for testing your Google test cases use mock dependencies to simulate actual behavior of their feature. As we see in our table driven testing example, we use mock inputs, right? So not just inputs, we can also mimic some dependencies to simulate our actual behavior that our code have to follow, right? Yes. So basically fake, you can use fake dependency as well utilizing port coverage tool. As I said, as I said in my starting of the session, always use go test cover. So basically if you want to see the coverage of youre test, you can use go test cover, which is basically a good thing to do along with when you are writing your test cases, automate and refactor your test cases using CI tools. Okay, so after writing your test cases, make sure after time to time you are updating your code or you are refactoring your code, because at any given time that feature got some changes or client have some requirement that okay, we need to do something this and that or we need to do some replacement or we need to some add or remove things. So we need to have our test cases along with our code. And if you are deciding to automate it, it will be a great practice to do it. You can use different CI tools like databases, travis CI, Jenkins, et cetera, et cetera. Always keep your test cases up to date as I said, always keep your test case up to date. You may not know that any given time requirements get changed, so you make sure that you are already up to date in your desk already. Update your test cases along in the convert of feature or even if you are using some external framework or library. You need to update that as well so you do not get break in the actual runtime. All right guys, so thank you very much. This was my session and thank you conf 42 Golang team for having me here, for inviting me to talk on this. You can follow me on Twitter at mkhan, GitHub, LinkedIn where I'm mostly active on. So let me know if you have any questions. You can reach me out on social media. And thank you.

Mohammad Quanit

Product Engineering Manager @ timegram

Mohammad Quanit's LinkedIn account Mohammad Quanit's twitter account

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